What is Uncertainty principle? Werner Heisenberg’s Theory

What is Uncertainty principle? In simple words, it helps you understand all of Quantum Mechanics. See it is complex and brain-twisting as we said in our article of Quantum Mechanics. So let’s not waste any more time and simply dive into the complexity of Uncertainty principle!

Renowned German physicist Werner Heisenberg introduced the uncertainty principle also known as Heisenberg’s principle of uncertainty or the principle of indeterminacy in quantum theory. It says that an object’s direction and velocity can not be all precisely measured, simultaneously, except in theory. In reality, the very definitions of precise location and exact velocity together have no significance in nature. The theory of uncertainty means that the value of a quantity can usually not be determined with absolute certainty, even though all the initial conditions are defined.

Traditionally the concept of uncertainty has been confused with a similar phenomenon of physics called the observer effect, which states that observations of such processes can not be made without altering the system, i.e. without modifying anything in a system. Heisenberg used such an observer effect as a practical “explanation” of quantum uncertainty at the quantum scale. However, it has been clearer since then that the concept of ambiguity is implicit in the behavior of all wave-like systems, and that it exists in quantum mechanics purely because of the existence of the matter-wave in all quantum objects. Therefore, the theory of uncertainty simply states a basic property of quantum mechanics, which is not a declaration of modern technology’s empirical progress.

What is Uncertainty principle
                                                                       Werner Heisenberg’s Theory of Uncertainty 

Explanation of Uncertainity Principle In our own way

The theory of uncertainty is not readily evident in the macroscopic dimensions of daily life. It is, therefore, useful to explain how it relates to physical conditions that are more easily understood. Two alternative theories give different reasons for the theory of uncertainty in quantum physics. The wave mechanics picture of the theory of uncertainty is more visually intuitive, but the more theoretical picture of the matrix mechanics formulates it in a way that makes it more generalizable.

Each particle is affiliated with a wave; in fact, each particle poses wavelike behavior. The particle is most likely to occur at those places where the wave’s undulations are largest, or most intense. However, the more powerful the fluctuation of the related wave is, the more poorly-defined the wavelength becomes, which in return defines the particle’s momentum. So a purely scattered wave has an uncertain wavelength; although having a definite location, the corresponding particle has no clear velocity. On the other hand, a particle-wave which has a well-defined wavelength is spread out. Although the related particle has a definite velocity, it can be nearly anywhere. A fairly precise calculation of one variable means a reasonably high uncertainty in the other calculation.

Ordinary experience does not offer any hint as to this theory. It is easy to calculate both the position and speed of, say, an automobile since the uncertainties for ordinary objects suggested by this theory are too negligible to be observed. The rule specifies that the result in place and velocity of the uncertainties is equivalent to or larger than a small physical quantity or constant [h/(4π)], where h is Planck’s constant, whose value is around 6.6 − 10−34 joule-second. The result of the uncertainties only becomes important for the extremely small masses of atoms and subatomic particles.

Additionally, the uncertainty principle is defined in terms of the momentum and position of a particle. A particle’s momentum is equivalent to its mass-product times its velocity. Therefore, the product of the uncertainties in the momentum and the position of a particle is equivalent to [h/(4π)] or greater.

What is Antimatter? The Curious Case of Antimatter

Relation with Many-worlds interpretation or multiverse theory

Physics has so many interesting things that it can be also called as exciting and entertaining Science. And definitely Many-worlds interpretation is one of them. In physics and philosophy, it’s one of the multiverse hypotheses. The definition of the many-worlds means there’s a very large number of universes — perhaps infinite. MWI sees time as a multi-branched tree in which all possible quantity outcomes are realized. This is intended to explain some paradoxes of quantum theory, such as the EPR paradox and the Schrödinger’s cat (which we will discuss in another article), as any possible outcome of a quantum event occurs within its own universe. Uncertainty in the understanding of other worlds results from any person in every universe who has no idea of what is going on in the other universes.

Uses or applications of Uncertainty principle

Well, we will not explain it as uses or applications rather we would like to call it the purpose of Uncertainty principle.

  • Quantify the expansion of spectral lines, forecast quantum fluctuations and, of course, set basic limits for various simultaneous findings.
  • Uncertainty principle has roots in string theory, black hole, and dual special relativity. In momentum, it could be solved as a quadratic inequality to prove that minimal length exists.

That’s all from us. For a more detailed explanation visit Wikipedia or Britannica.

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