What is Unified Field Theory? This term Unified Field Theory was first coined by none other than Albert Einstein nearly a century ago but still, it has a long way to go. We should better call it a hypothesis rather than a theory. But if it made possible than physic will open a very higher dimension of possibilities which we still could not think possible. Before going in further we would like to tell you that you might be confused because there are two more theories namely “Theory of Everything” and “Grand Unified Theory”. And there are debates some call these three theories or hypothesis same and some say they are different. We think they are more or less the same but will explain in detail about Theory of Everything (TOE) and Grand Unified Theory (GUT) in another article as they are more prominent in the scientific world. The TOE and the GUT are close to unified field theory but vary by not allowing the basis of reality to be fields, and also by attempting to describe natural physical constants.
What is Unified Field Theory or UFT
In physics, UFT is a type of field theory that allows writing in terms of a pair of physical and virtual fields everything that is generally thought of as fundamental forces ( gravitational, electromagnetic, strong nuclear, and weak nuclear forces) and elementary particles. The forces are not transmitted directly between interacting objects, according to recent developments in physics, but rather are represented and disrupted by intermediate entities called fields.
UFT in particle physics, an effort to explain all fundamental forces in terms of a single theoretical structure and the correlations between elementary particles. In particle physics fields that mediate interactions between different objects may be defined as these forces.
Idea of Unified Field Theory or UFT
James Clerk Maxwell a Scottish mathematical physicist formulated the first field theory in his electromagnetism theory. In the 20th century Albert Einstein after introducing general relativity, and the field theory of gravitation attempted the Unified Field Theory and coined the term. Einstein, as well as others, tried to develop a unified theory of fields in which electromagnetism and gravity would appear as separate aspects of a single fundamental region. They all failed trying, and gravity remains beyond attempts toward a unified field theory to this day.
Unified Field Theory or UFT in Modern Days
Sheldon Glashow an American physicist in 1963 Suggested that a partially unified electroweak theory could give rise to weak nuclear force, electricity, and magnetism. Glashow’s theory was independently revamped by making masses for W particles and Z particles emerge by random symmetry breaking with the Higgs mechanism by Pakistani scientist Abdus Salam and American scientist Steven Weinberg. Glashow, Salam, and Weinberg received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1979 for their contributions to Unified Field Theory.
A generally accepted, coherent theory that incorporates general relativity and quantum mechanics to form a theory of all (TOE) has not yet been developed by theoretical physicists. Attempting to interface the graviton with the strong and electroweak powers prompts basic difficulties and the resultant standard can not be renormalised. The incompatibility of both theories in the field of physics remains an unresolved issue.
Forces in Unified Field Theory
All four of the known fundamental forces are regulated by fields, arising from the interaction of gauge bosons in the Standard Model of Particle Physics. And precisely these four fundamental forces are converted into four fundamental interactions and they are :
- Gravitational Interactions: An enticing long range interaction that operates on both particles. The hypothesized particle of trade was called graviton.
- Electromagnetic Interactions: Popular activity acting on electrically charged particles. The photon is the object of exchange for the force
- Weak Interactions: A brief-range interaction that is responsible for many modes of radioactivity involving electrons, neutrinos and quarks. It is controlled by bosons W and Z.
- Strong Interactions: The interaction responsible for maintaining quarks together to form hadrons, and holding together neutrons and also protons to form atomic nuclei. The particle of exchange which catalyzes the force is the gluon.
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