Absolute zero is the lowest limit of the thermodynamic temperature spectrum, the state in which the enthalpy and entropy of the cooled ideal gas meet their minimum value as zero kelvins. Nature ‘s fundamental particles have limited vibrational motion, maintaining only mechanical quantum, energy-induced particle motion at zero-point. The theoretical temperature is calculated by extrapolating the ideal gas law; absolute zero on the Celsius scale, which equals −459.67 ° on the Fahrenheit scale, is taken by international consensus as −273.15 °. Per description, the corresponding temperature scales of Kelvin and Rankine set their zero points at absolute zero.

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It is generally assumed to be the lowest possible temperature, but not the lowest possible enthalpy condition, since all actual substances tend to differ from the ideal gas when cooled as they approach the transition in condition to liquid, and then to solid; and the sum of the enthalpy of vaporization (carbon to liquid) and fusion enthalpy (liquid to solid) exceeds the ideal gas transition of enthalpy to enthalpy. In the quantum-mechanical definition, matter (solid) at absolute zero is the lowest point of internal energy in its ground state.

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The thermodynamics laws suggest that absolute zero can not be achieved by using only thermodynamic means, because the temperature of the cooling agent is asymptotically approaching the temperature of the cooling agent, and the system at absolute zero still possesses quantum mechanical zero-point energy, the energy of its ground state at absolute zero. The earth’s kinetic energy can not be extracted.

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