As we know the cell is the basic unit of life. Without cells, any life form cant exist. There are two types of Cells those without a membrane-binding nucleus are Prokaryotic cell whereas membrane-binding nuclei cells are considered Eukaryotic cell. Here we will know more about Prokaryotic cells. Read more Life Science topics here
What is the Prokaryotic Cell?
The bacteria, the blue-green algae, mycoplasma and Pleuro Pneumonia Like Organisms (PPLO) represent the prokaryotic cells. These are typically smaller, so these grow more than the eukaryotic cells. The form and scale of these can vary greatly. What is Cell? The Basic Unit of Life and How it Works
- Bacillus (rod like),
- coccus (spherical),
- vibrio (comma shaped)
- and spirillum (spiral)
are the four essential types of bacteria. The prokaryotic cell structure, while the prokaryotes show a broad range of types and roles, is essentially identical.
Characteristics and functions of Prokaryotic Cells
- Prokaryotes have a cell wall that encircles the cell membrane.
- Cytoplasm is the fluid matrix that fills the cell.
- The nucleus is not well-defined.
- The genetic material is practically transparent and not enveloped by a nuclear membrane. Besides the genomic DNA (the single chromosome/circular DNA), other bacteria have small circular DNA outside of the genomic DNA. Such smaller plasmids are called DNA.
- The plasmid DNA confers these bacteria with some special phenotypical characters. One such trait is antibiotic resistance.
- This plasmid DNA is used to track the fusion of bacteria with foreign DNA.
- There is a nucleic membrane in eukaryotes.
- Several organelles are present in prokaryotic cells except for ribosomes, as in eukaryotes.
- Prokaryotes have a special role in the form of inclusions.
- Prokaryotic Cell is distinguished by a specialized segregated shape of the cell membrane called mesosome. These are simply cell membrane infoldings.
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