The cell is the basic unit of life. Which is the basic foundation of life on Earth. Know more about Cell – The Basic Unit of Life and How it Works . A cell is mainly classified into two different types Cells that without a membrane-binding nucleus are Prokaryotic cell whereas membrane-binding nuclei cells are considered Eukaryotic cell. Read more Life Science topics here
What is Eukaryotic Cell?
Eukaryotic Cell have a membrane-bound nucleus, unlike prokaryotes, which do not have membrane-bound organs. The eukaryotes are composed of all the protists, insects, animals and fungi. Within eukaryotic cells, the cytoplasm is compartmentalized primarily by the involvement of membrane-bound organelles. The eukaryotic cells have a nuclear-enveloped nucleus. The eukaryotic cells also have a number of diverse locomotive and cytoskeletal architectures. Their genetic content is arranged into chromosomes. All of the eukaryotic cells are not similar. Plant and animal cells vary because the previous cell walls, plastids, and a large central vacuole are absent from animal cells. In comparison, animal cells have centrioles that are absent in almost all plant cells.
Difference between Eukaryotic Cell and Prokaryotic Cell
Here are some differences between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes before that read about What is Prokaryotic Cell? Cells that are present in Bacteria
- The differentiation between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is generally called the most important variation or separation between species. The contrast is that eukaryotic cells have a “real” nucleus that holds their DNA, whereas prokaryotic cells have no nucleus in them.
- Both eukaryotes and prokaryotes possess large complexes of RNA/protein called ribosomes, which generate protein, but prokaryote ribosomes are smaller than eukaryotes’. Two organelles present in many eukaryotic cells, mitochondria and chloroplasts, contain ribosomes similar in size and composition to those contained in prokaryotes.
- In the cytosol called the nucleoid, which lacks a nuclear membrane, the genome of a prokaryote is retained within a complex of DNA or protein.
- Prokaryotes lack the chloroplast and mitochondria. Instead, mechanisms including oxidative phosphorylation and photosynthesis occur through the prokaryotic membrane of the cells.
- Prokaryotic cells are typically significantly smaller than eukaryotic cells. therefore that have a larger surface area to volume ratio. and that’s why they have a higher metabolic rate.
- Eukaryotic cells are usually much larger than prokaryotic cells, with a volume about ten thousand times bigger than the prokaryotic cell.
Eukaryotic Cell Characteristics
- Internal Cell Membrane: A number of membrane-bound structures are found in Eukaryote cells. The blossoming of different membranes may form simple compartments, called vesicles and vacuoles. A mechanism of endocytosis, in which the external membrane invaginates and pins off to create a vesicle, ingests several cells with food and other materials. The nucleus consists of a double membrane commonly known as a nuclear membrane, with pores that permit material to move in and out.
- Mitochondria and Plastids: In all but one eukaryote, mitochondria are organelles. By converting sugars into ATP, mitochondria provides the cell with energy. The mitochondria produce their own DNA which is very much like bacterial DNA and codes rRNA and tRNA genes, creating RNA similar to bacterial RNA in structure than eukaryote RNA.Plastids are also present in plants and different classes of algae. Plastides are also formed from endosymbionts, in this case, cyanobacteria, with their own DNA. These are usually in chloroplastic form and contain chlorophyll like cyanobacteria which, by photosynthesis, produce organic compounds (e.g. glucose).
- Cytoskeletal structures: Throughout the determination of cell shapes and the components of migratory responses such as chemotaxis and chemokinesis, the importance of cytoskeletal structures is stressed.
- Cell Wall: Plant and algal cells, fungi have a cell wall, a layer outside the cell membrane that protects the cell, offers structural protection and a mechanism for filtering the cell. Even, as fluids enter the cell, the cell wall avoids over-expansion.